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Who is a very interesting question, which I would like to address in a future blog post, as the subjects of Khitan epitaphs are mostly mutually related members of the Khitan aristocracy.
Where is a question that I have already attempted to answer here and here. This blog post attempts to answer the question "When?
At present this post includes 35 Khitan Large Script dates from 11 sources, and 74 Khitan Small Script dates from 15 sources. All the Khitan Small Script dates are Liao dynasty — dates.
A Daily Calendar for the Liao and Jin Dynasties Khitan inscriptions date from the Liao dynasty — and the following Jin dynasty —so in order to understand the chronology of Khitan inscriptions it is necessary to understand the calendars used during the Liao and Jin dynasties, as well as the calendar of the neighbouring Song dynasty — So as a first step, in preparation for writing this blog post, I created a daily calendar covering the years of the Song, Liao and Jin dynasties — Atlines in length, the calendar is too long even for me to attempt to include in this post as an html table, but I have made it available for download as an Excel workbook or as tab-delimited text.
At present the calendar covers the Liao, Northern Liao —Western Liao —Jin, and Song dynasties, but does not include calendrical information for any of the Five Dynasties or Ten Kingdoms — For each day from tothe calendar gives the corresponding date in the Julian calendar, the cyclical year and the cyclical day common across all calendarsthe calendrical date i.
In a few places, where the date of a new month given in the DDBC Time Authority Database differs from the date given in one of the dynastic histories, I have corrected the date to follow the dynastic history. The standard dynastic histories History of the Song, History of the Liao, and History of the Jin record dates by era year, calendrical month and cyclical day e.
As epitaphs usually refer to dates by the ordinal day of the month, it is necessary to be able to synchronize the sixty-day cyclical cycle with the lunar months in order to determine what ordinal day any given cyclical day is.
It is also necessary to be able to synchronize calendrical dates between the Song, Liao and Jin calendars. Luckily the dynastic histories indicate if a given cyclical day is the day of a new moon, and as the first day of a month is the day of the new moon this information can be used to synchronize the sixty-day cyclical cycle with the lunar months.
Solar and lunar eclipses are also systematically recorded in the dynastic histories, and they can be used to synchronize the Song, Liao and Jin calendars with each other and with the Julian calendar. My daily calendar provides the NASA catalogue numbers of solar and lunar eclipses that are recorded in the dynastic histories.
The daily calendar of Liao and Jin dynasties underpins the annual Liao and Jin chronological tables given further down in this blog post. However, the Liao calendar was not identical to the calendar used during the Song dynasty —and differences in calculating the date of the new moon and the dates of solar terms meant that Liao and Song months were not always synchronized.
That is to say, although cyclical days are always the same across all calendars, the calendar day that corresponds to a given cyclical day may not always be the same in the Liao and Song calendars. It is obviously very important to be aware of these calendrical differences when comparing Liao and Song historical records.
Months are either 29 days or 30 days in length, and in most cases Liao and Song months start on the same cyclical day and are the same length.
However, occasionally a month in the Liao calendar starts one day earlier or one day later than the corresponding month in the Later Zhou or Song calendar, with the result that two consecutive months and on one occasion three consecutive months have different number of days in the Liao calendar compared with the Later Zhou calendar or Song calendar e.
This situation occurs three times during the Later Zhou, and thirty-five times during the Song dynasty, resulting in seventy-six Liao months with different lengths compared with the Later Zhou or Song calendar between and This also results in thirty-nine Liao months starting on a different cyclical day plus or minus one day compared with the Later Zhou or Song calendar.
These anomalous months are shown in the table below.(see 'how to play' for important information) Test your knowledge on this music quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by ks23 Billboard #1 Hits - First Lyric Quiz - By ks ROUNDERS SIMPLIFIED RULES, SCORE SHEET AND FAQs.
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