Moral development involves the formation of a system of values on which to base decisions concerning "right" and "wrong, " or "good" and "bad. Although morality has been a topic of discussion since the beginning of human civilization, the scientific study of moral development did not begin in earnest until the late s. Lawrence Kohlbergan American psychologist building upon Jean Piaget's work in cognitive reasoning, posited six stages of moral development in his doctoral thesis. Since that time, morality and moral development have become acceptable subjects of scientific research.
Terminology[ edit ] "Character" is one of those overarching concepts that is the subject of disciplines from philosophy to theologyfrom psychology to sociology —with many competing and conflicting theories. In other words, a person who exhibits personal qualities like those a society considers desirable might be considered to have good character—and developing such personal qualities is often seen as a purpose of education.
However, the various proponents of character education are far from agreement as to what "good" is, or what qualities are desirable. Compounding this problem is that there is no scientific definition of character.
Because such a concept blends personality and behavioral components, scientists have long since abandoned use of the term "character" and, instead, use the term psychological motivators to measure the behavioral predispositions of individuals. With no clinically defined meaning, there is virtually no way to measure if an individual has a deficit of character, or if a school program can improve it.
The various terms in the lists of values that character education programs propose—even those few found in common among some programs—suffer from vague definitions.
This makes the need and effectiveness of character education problematic to measure. Programs are generally of four varieties: They may be used alone or in combination. Elements include "catching students being good" and praising them or giving them chits that can be exchanged for privileges or prizes.
There are many theories about means, but no comparative data and no consensus in the industry as to what, if any, approach may be effective. Indeed, the attempt to understand and develop character extends into prehistory. Psychic arts[ edit ] Since very early times, people have tried to access or "read" the pre-disposition character of self and others.
Being able to predict and even manipulate human behavior, motivations, and reactions would bestow obvious advantages. Pre-scientific character assessment techniques have included, among others: These approaches have been scientifically discredited although they continue to be widely practiced.
Race character[ edit ] The concept of inherited "race character" has long been used to characterize desirable versus undesirable qualities in members of groups as a whole along national, tribal, ethnic, religious and even class lines. Though race character continues to be used as a justification for persecution of minorities worldwide,  it has been scientifically discredited and is not overtly a component of modern character education in western societies.
Generational character[ edit ] Particularly in modern liberal republics, social and economic change is rapid and can result in cognitive stress to older generations when each succeeding generation expands on and exhibits their own modes of expressing the freedoms such societies enjoy.
America is a prime example. With few traditions, each generation exhibites attitudes and behaviors that conservative segments of preceding generations uneasily assimilate.
Individual incidents can also produce a moral panic. Cries about loss of morals in the succeeding generation, overwhelmingly unsubstantiated,  and calls for remediation have been constant in America since before its founding.
Eastern philosophy[ edit ] Eastern philosophy views the nature of man as initially quiet and calm, but when affected by the external world, it develops desires. When the desires are not properly controlled and the conscious mind is distracted by the material world, we lose our true selves and the principle of reason in Nature is destroyed.
From this arise rebellion, disobedience, cunning and deceit, and general immorality. This is the way of chaos. A hallmark of the philosophy of Confucius is his emphasis on tradition and study.The various terms in the lists of values that character education programs propose—even those few found in common among some programs—suffer from vague definitions.
Eastern philosophy and integrates these into a moral choice. Character education movement of the s. TPOL S Introduction to Globalization (5) I&S Provides an introduction to the debates over globalization.
Focuses on the growth and intensification of global ties. Addresses the resulting inequalities and tensions, as well as the new opportunities for cultural and political exchange.
Topics. UNIVERSAL HUMAN VALUES Universal values expressed at the highest level of generality can be formulated in various ways. According to the connotation defined for each high level value, a different number of them can be isolated. While provision for the education of gifted students in East Asia is ongoing, specific efforts in moral education are not known to the external world.
Viewed from an Eastern perspective, this chapter briefly discusses moral education in talent development in Singapore, China, Indonesia, South Korea. Personality theories, types and tests Personality types, behavioural styles theories, personality and testing systems - for self-awareness, self-development, motivation, management, and recruitment.
THEORIES OF VALUES AND MORAL EDUCATION: THE WESTERN LEGACY Kohlberg *a modern day authority on moral development theory John Locke One of the fundamental teaching in moral education rests on the active suppression of children's desire.