Non-volatile memory Non-volatile memory is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory see ROMflash memorymost types of magnetic computer storage devices e. Semi-volatile memory[ edit ] A third category of memory is "semi-volatile".
Hippocampus[ edit ] Hippocampus as seen in red Although many psychologists believe that the entire brain is involved with memory, the hippocampus and surrounding structures appear to be most important in declarative memory specifically.
Aland proposes that the hippocampus does three things with episodic memory: Mediates the recording of episodic memories Identifies common features between episodes Links these common episodes in a memory space.
Separate links are also made for features related to that event. For example, when you meet someone new, a unique link is created for them.
Specific episodes are made easier to remember and recall by repeatedly exposing oneself to them which strengthens the links in the memory space allowing for faster retrieval when remembering. Some cells are specific to spatial information, certain stimuli smells, etc. However, the Three Stage Model does not incorporate the importance of other cortical structures in memory.
The anatomy of the hippocampus is largely conserved across mammals, and the role of these areas in declarative memory are conserved across species as well. The organization and neural pathways of the hippocampus are very similar in humans and other mammal species. In humans and other mammals, a cross-section of the hippocampus shows the dentate gyrus as well as the dense cell layers of the CA fields.
The intrinsic connectivity of these areas are also conserved. These tests did not differentiate between individual test items later seen and those forgotten. Amygdala as seen in red Amygdala[ edit ] The amygdala is believed to be involved in the encoding and retrieval of emotionally charged memories.
Much of the evidence for this has come from research on a phenomenon known as flashbulb memories. These are instances in which memories of powerful emotional events are more highly detailed and enduring than regular memories e.
September 11 attacksassassination of JFK. These memories have been linked to increased activation in the amygdala. Lesions can occur naturally through trauma or disease, or they can be surgically induced by researchers. In the study of declarative memory, the hippocampus and the amygdala are two structures frequently examined using this technique.
Hippocampal lesion studies[ edit ] The Morris water maze The Morris water navigation task tests spatial learning in rats. Visual cues that surround the pool e. In this task created by Morris, et al. Each trial is timed and the path taken by the rats is recorded.
Rats with hippocampal lesions successfully learn to find the platform.
If the starting point is moved, the rats with hippocampal lesions typically fail to locate the platform. The control rats, however, are able to find the platform using the cues acquired during the learning trials. The experimenters then present the subject rat with a decision between two food options; the food previously eaten by the demonstrator, and a novel food.
The researchers found that when there was no time delay, both control rats and rats with lesions chose the familiar food. After 24 hours, however, the rats with hippocampal lesions were just as likely to eat both types of food, while control rats chose the familiar food.The different types of memory each have their own particular mode of operation, but they all cooperate in the process of memorization, and can be seen as three necessary steps in forming a lasting memory.
This model of memory as a sequence of three stages. English Language Learners Definition of memoir. memoirs: a written account in which someone (such as a famous performer or politician) describes past experiences: a written account of someone or something that is usually based on personal knowledge of the subject.
Memories definition, the mental capacity or faculty of retaining and reviving facts, events, impressions, etc., or of recalling or recognizing previous experiences. See more. The memories of the different elements of a particular event are distributed in the various visual, olfactory and auditory areas of the brain, but they are all connected together by the hippocampus to form an episode, rather than remaining a collection of separate memories.
Three types of sensory memories exist. Iconic memory is a fast decaying store of visual information; a type of sensory memory that briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration. Echoic memory is a . Memory definition is - the power or process of reproducing or recalling what has been learned and retained especially through associative mechanisms.
How to use memory in a sentence. Synonym Discussion of memory.