Research review paper biodiesel from microalgae

University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists have shown that a recently-discovered variety of lignin called catechyl lignin C-lignin has attributes that could make it well-suited as the starting point for a range of bioproducts. Lignin makes up about a quarter of plant biomass and is the most abundant source of renewable aromatics on Earth. Aromatics are materials with six carbon rings usually derived from petroleum that are the building blocks for a wide array of products — from plastics to pharmaceuticals.

Research review paper biodiesel from microalgae

Metal-air batteries are one of the lightest and most compact types of batteries available, but they can have a major limitation: When not in use, they degrade quickly, as corrosion eats away at their metal electrodes. While typical rechargeable lithium-ion batteries only lose about 5 percent of their charge after a month of storage, they are too costly, bulky, or heavy for many applications.

Primary nonrechargeable aluminum-air batteries are much less expensive and more compact and lightweight, but they can lose 80 percent of their charge a month. The MIT design overcomes the problem of corrosion in aluminum-air batteries by introducing an oil barrier between the aluminum electrode and the electrolyte — the fluid between the two battery electrodes that eats away at the aluminum when the battery is on standby.

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The oil is rapidly pumped away and replaced with electrolyte as soon as the battery is used. As a result, the energy loss is cut to just 0. Click image for the largest view. While several other methods have been used to extend the shelf life of metal-air batteries which can use other metals such as sodium, lithium, magnesium, zinc, or ironthese methods can sacrifice performance Hopkins said.

Most of the other approaches involve replacing the electrolyte with a different, less corrosive chemical formulation, but these alternatives drastically reduce the battery power. Other methods involve pumping the liquid electrolyte out during storage and back in before use.

These methods still enable significant corrosion and can clog plumbing systems in the battery pack. Because aluminum is hydrophilic water-attracting even after electrolyte is drained out of the pack, the remaining electrolyte will cling to the aluminum electrode surfaces.

A key to the new system is a thin membrane placed between the battery electrodes. When the battery is in use, both sides of the membrane are filled with a liquid electrolyte, but when the battery is put on standby, oil is pumped into the side closest to the aluminum electrode, which protects the aluminum surface from the electrolyte on the other side of the membrane.

As a result, when the battery is reactivated and electrolyte is pumped back in, the electrolyte easily displaces the oil from the aluminum surface, which restores the power capabilities of the battery.

Ironically, the MIT method of corrosion suppression exploits the same property of aluminum that promotes corrosion in conventional systems.

The result is an aluminum-air prototype with a much longer shelf life than that of conventional aluminum-air batteries. The researchers showed that when the battery was repeatedly used and then put on standby for one to two days, the MIT design lasted 24 days, while the conventional design lasted for only three.

Even when oil and a pumping system are included in scaled-up primary aluminum-air battery packs, they are still five times lighter and twice as compact as rechargeable lithium-ion battery packs for electric vehicles, the researchers report. He says many experts think aluminum-air batteries may be the only viable replacement for lithium-ion batteries and for gasoline in cars.

Aluminum-air batteries have been used as range extenders for electric vehicles to supplement built-in rechargeable batteries, to add many extra miles of driving when the built-in battery runs out. They are also sometimes used as power sources in remote locations or for some underwater vehicles.

But while such batteries can be stored for long periods as long as they are unused, as soon as they are turned on for the first time, they start to degrade rapidly.

Research review paper biodiesel from microalgae

I really think this is a game-changer in terms of the use of these batteries. The team has already filed for patents on the process.

Innovation for Europe – life science meets market application

This might be super news if the process technology gets to scale. There is also another metal air market that is being overlooked, the hearing aids.

And the battery issue drives lots of users — nuts.Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name.

Send questions or comments to doi. Sustainable production of renewable energy is being hotly debated globally since it is increasingly understood that first generation biofuels, primarily produced from food crops and mostly oil seeds are limited in their ability to achieve targets for biofuel production, climate change mitigation and .

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main issues concerned with the oxidative and storage stabilities of biodiesel and how they affect different metallic and polymeric materials present in automotive parts and in biodiesel storage structures.

In addition, this work presents a review of the. Sustainable production of renewable energy is being hotly debated globally since it is increasingly understood that first generation biofuels, primarily produced from food crops and mostly oil seeds are limited in their ability to achieve targets for biofuel production, climate change mitigation and .

Important dates in the history of lipids. The alchemist Brandt Hennig is credited to have prepared phosphorus (phosphoro mirabile), the first element isolated in a quite pure state Track accepted paper. Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article.

History of lipids