President Peter Likins, University of Arizona 9: Georges Duby and Courtly Love Lunch Special Collections Conference Room 1: Symmetrical Accusations in the Roman de la Violette 2:
Burgess and Busby have offered a prose translation, which focuses on being as close to the original meaning as possible, and they cons This book contains the 12 poems by Marie de France, an introduction by Glyn Burgess, a translator's note from Keith Busby: Burgess and Busby have offered a prose translation, which focuses on being as close to the original meaning as possible, and they considered that this makes a more easy reading as Marie's original short sentences are quite staccato.
I disagree of course, because I was taught that much of the sense of a poem comes from the structure which adds to the simple word meaning in a multitude of additional ways, for example rhyming couplets in English are often used for comedic effect, or possibly curtness.
You start to appreciate her skill, when you consider this. I did enjoy Professor Burgess's introduction. He covers all the salient points reference the various manuscripts that are in existence today; the difficulties of accurately pinpointing the exact date for the production of Marie's work last quarter of the 12th century and of course the difficulty of identifying Marie herself, although he does confirm in his opinion that the writer is indeed a woman.
Burgess offers no less than four possible candidates for Marie's real-life personage, and confirms that she must have been a lady of high-birth because of her facility with languages Latin, Anglo-Norman and Old French and her knowledge of contemporary and ancient literary texts and styles, as well as her familiarity with courtly life.
He concludes that she was probably born in France, but moved to England as a result of marriage or the need to expand her literary fame.
The central theme of all the poems or lais is love, and specifically erotic or passionate love between a man and a woman; usually the love takes place between a couple who must break the vows of wedlock; so the two must be resourceful and fight to establish or to continue their love, most often in secret; and it is not simply courtly love, but physical love, as in the union of the two.
In some of the lais, for example Yonec and Milun there are offspring. I think the modern reader will be surprised to find that the problems of the lovers are still very much what lovers today find themselves dealing with.
Here is an example from Milun, which is the ninth lais: The damsel was full of joy because of the love thus granted to her. Milun and she frequently arranged a meeting in a garden in which she took her ease, close to her bedchamber.
Milun visited the damsel so often and loved her so much that she became pregnant. When she realized this, she summoned Milun and bemoaned her fate. She told him what had happened: It is such an old tale.
And what I find interesting is that in most of Marie's lais, often the action is instigated by the woman, and when problems befall the couple, it is often the woman who comes up with a plan, or compromise or some kind of resolution. Marie's women prove to be intelligent, and independent thinkers.
The lai of Milun continues with the damsel making plans to conceal the baby with her married sister, and her partner carries out her requirements to the letter. Let us go back to the beginning, the twelve lais are prefaced by a Prologue in which Marie presents the source of her lais and her reasons for writing.
She explains that she took the material from the touring Breton musicians, who had turned adventures into songs. Marie says that she chose this material because - and here I present my own interpretation - that is was contemporary and spoke to her.
She also reveals a reason which I think explains her focus on love: Anyone wishing to guard against vice should study intently and undertake a demanding task, whereby one can ward off and rid oneself of great suffering. For this reason I began to think of working on some good story and translating a Latin text into French, but this would scarcely have been worthwhile, for others have undertaken a similar task.
So I thought of lays which I had heard and did not doubt, for I knew it full well, that they were composed, by those who first began them and put them into circulation, to perpetuate the memory of adventures they had heard. I myself have heard a number of them and do not wish to overlook or neglect them.
I have put them into verse, made poems from them and worked on them late into the night. I think this part of the Prologue is very revealing about Marie, and certainly I am not a scholar and no doubt scholars would decrie my womanly intuition but I think it is quite clear that Marie has suffered from a broken heart.
It is framed - in the general, but She says "I thought of lays I did not doubt, for I knew it full well Or perhaps the significance of a line break?
Medieval writing is renowned for its play with words, the use of double negatives, puns, innuendo, some effects that are easily lost if you translate or change the structure. The Breton love-tales or songs appealed to Marie because she heard them herself and they spoke directly of people the musicians knew about and, quite possibly reminded Marie of her own adventures.
Personal speculation aside, however, it does not do to make make light of Marie's subject.
She would have been familiar with the troubadour love poems composed at that time in the south of France, Provence, and of the development of Romances. Burgess suggests that Marie's lais fall between them stylistically. Marie was drawn to this material from a personal perspective I suspect, but more importantly, her interest in the genre of Courtly Love, was primarily to do with the fact that it represented an important intellectual development, and quite possibly its very real effect on the re-structuring of society at that time.
The social structure was the feudal system, and depending on the region, it covered a period of approximately years between and A. The feudal system was a power structure with Lords in allegiance to a regional king.
The lords governed large areas, and every single person within the serfs were owned and in life-servitude to the lord. This power structure was controlled by force - the knights, and through allegiances by marriage, - sanctioned by the Church.Colonial Possessions: the Anglo-Norman Imaginary in the Lais of Marie de France.
Though adulterous love is a staple theme of courtly literature, the representation of illegitimate children resulting from such illicit unions is, as Georges Duby has noted, exceedingly rare.
The Lais of Marie de France is the perfect medieval read for anyone who enjoys fairytales. Each short story features elements that fans of the genre will recognize and love—beautiful women trapped in towers, daring knights who perform feats of arms to capture their attention, mysterious boats that /5.
Gender Roles in Marriage in the Books The Lais of Marie De France and The Fabliaux ( words, 5 pages) From the time of The Lais of Marie de France to The Fabliaux, a change is seen in the views on women and men and their roles in marriage, love, and physical interactions between the sexes.
Frame gender roles in marriage in the books the lais of marie de france and the fabliaux Game an essay on the ethics and philosophy of eating grossed out its readers by tackling a mounting controversy in newspapers and state legislatures.
Richard Neuse, "Marriage and the Question of Allegory in the Merchant's Tale," Chaucer Review 24 (): , at Marie de France, Guigemar and Yonec, in The Lais of Marie de France, trans.
Glyn S. Burgess and Keith Busby (London, ). Cited by: 8. André le chapelain, Traité de l’amour courtois. Béroul et Thomas d’Angleterre, Tristan et Iseult. Desgrugillers-Billard (ed.), Ami et Amile.
Chrétien de Troyes, Yvain ou Le Chevalier au lion. Marie de France, Lais. Rossi et Straub (eds.), Fabliaux Érotiques.
Roche-Mahdi (ed.), Le Roman de Silence. Alain de Lille, De planctu Naturae.